haotu : an open lab notebook


aic in R

Filed under: Uncategorized — S @ 05:35



Shut off all graphics in R | Close all windows in R | Start your code with this

Filed under: Uncategorized — S @ 02:37


nmds in R

Filed under: R, Uncategorized — Tags: — S @ 02:11





reset par R | reset par default

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , — S @ 02:09

Open new graphics devise. Open a new window if using MS.



plot plots next to each other in R: manipulate white space around R produced graphics

Filed under: R, R graphics — S @ 06:04

Many times I need to make a figure for a paper with multiple panels. What I do is line up the panels such that I can remove axes labels when side-by-side.

Then I manipulate the white space using the par function. There is a nice figure here that describes the proper arguments With the code that produces it.

The image is reproduced below



Subset R Data.frame, Matrix, Vector, Object using multiple values, identifiers

Filed under: R, Uncategorized — Tags: — S @ 06:57

I wanted to remove several rows in a matrix that each have a unique identifier. I could loop across each identifier if the identifiers are in a vector, but instead I would like to do it in one step.

For example:
a dataframe

A 1
B 1
A 3
C 5
C 6
D 1
E 2
A 7
A 9

How do I remove all the lines that correspond with B and D, in this data.frame


or more precisely, how do I remove those rows identified only once in the first column?

XX = XX[sapply(XX[,1],is.element,names(table(XX[,1])[table(XX[,1])>1])),]

use the




show hidden files ubuntu

Filed under: Ubuntu — Tags: — S @ 07:13

In the GUI, pressing Ctrl+H displays any hidden system files and folders.

show my ip

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , — S @ 01:32

ask that in google.


pdf plus

Filed under: Uncategorized — S @ 04:02

Help – Future Science

What is the difference between PDF and PDF plus? PDF is optimized for printing, whereas PDF Plus is intended for online usage and provides reference linking.


Copy Path in Windows File Explorer

Filed under: Uncategorized — S @ 06:58

Right click!

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